The principle function that has to be performed by the organization to achieve it’s primary goal cannot be done by one individual because of lack of time, energy and competence or all these. As a result, the principle function has to be divided into individual assignments. This is the reason for creating jobs. Indeed, job design can be defined as the function of arranging tasks, duties and responsibilities into an organizational unit of work with the purpose of accomplishing a specific goal. Job design is a conscious effort as well as a continuous activity.
When it comes to a job, job is an organizational mount of work. Actually, this consists with three main components. They are,
A task is a series of motions and is a distinct identifiable small work activity.
A duty is a series of task and is a larger work segment.
Responsibility is the obligation to perform assigned tasks and duties successfully.
What is the significance of job design?
Actually, job design affects overall individual job performance. It has direct influence on efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, satisfaction, health & development of employee.
What are the unfavorable effects of inappropriate job design?
01. Lower productivity
02. Higher employee turnover
03. Higher absenteeism
05. Industrial conflicts
What are the techniques of job design?
01. Scientific Technique
This techniques derived from scientific management by F. W. Taylor. Basic objective of this technique is to maximize the organizational productivity by maximizing employee efficiency. In other words, this is about acquiring maximum output by reducing effort and cost required to finish the task/ duty. Scientific technique of job design result in a more specialized job that has a shorter job cycle. (Job cycle means the required time to complete every duty in the job for once.)
02. Job Enlargement
Increasing the scope of the job by including a new related duty / duties in addition to the current duties, refers as Job Enlargement. Alternatively, it is regarded as ‘Horizontal Expansion’.
03. Job Enrichment
Increasing the depth of the job by expanding authority and responsibility for planning, doing and controlling the job is named as Job Enrichment. Alternatively, this is regarded as, ‘ Vertical Expansion’ or ‘ Vertical Loading’.
04. Job Rotation
Job rotation is shifting an employee from one particular job to another without limiting the employees to do a specific job only. It is like a training for the employee. Finally, employee will get an overall understanding about the organization.
05. Group Technique
Job is designed so that a group of individuals can perform it. Result is a collective job rather than an individual job.
Example : Cricket team, Debate team
06. Professional Technique
Designing job according to certain accepted profession refers professional technique.
Example : Chartered Accountant, Engineer